Markings Reference

(Click images to enlarge)

Whorl

Position

  • Head: Frontal, Medial and eye level, Cheek, Forelock
  • Crest: Poll, High crest (anterior third of crest), Mid crest, Low crest (posterior third of crest)
  • Neck: Upper, Lower, Crest, Jugular Groove, Ventral
  • Leg: Upper arm, medial or lateral, knee, hock.
  • Body: Breast, Chest, Hip, Stifle, Gaskin, Flank etc.

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Whorl, or Simple Whorl
  • Turfed Whorl
  • Linear Whorl
  • Crested Whorl
  • Sinuous curve line
  • Feathered whorl: short, long, upward, downward, broad, curved, linear, circular or irregular
  • Whorl Pattern, two or more whorls: Horizontal, vertical, diagonal, conjoined/joined by a feather or joined by two linear or diagonal feather, triangular separate or superimposed

Indicated With:

  • Simple whorl “X”
  • Feathered whorl “X – “Stripe” indicating the feather

White Markings

Position

  • Head
  • Limbs
  • Neck
  • Body

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Left side
  • Right side
  • Position on body ie. fetlock
  • Front (anterior)
  • Behind (posterior)
  • Above
  • Below
  • Dorsal
  • Ventral
  • Distal
  • Un-pigmented/Fleshmark

Indicated With:

  • Full pigmented hairs: Outlined and Hatched
  • Mixed or Mottled hairs: Hatched not outlined
  • Un-pigmented: Filled mark
  • Boarded: Double line
  • Flecking or Ticking: Small stripes
  • Dark marks inside of white: Outlined in black

Star

Position

  • Forehead

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Position: Relation to the eye level (upper or lower level), central, diagonal (describe slope) towards the right or left, close to the eyes, ears, forelock etc.
  • Size: small, medium or large, medium being a star only
  • Shape: oval, round, diamond shape, vertical, horizontal, narrow, triangular, elongated, linear, diagonal, comma, V, shield, pear, pointed crescent shaped (right or left open) and other. If non of these can be used, the term irregular should be used.
  • Intensity: Faint and bordered
  • Markings within mark
  • Mixed White Patch or Few White Hairs
  • Ticking or facial flecking is used to describe scattered white hair over the face
  • Two White Markings: Larger one is the star, with the other being a white patch, describing the relation to one another.

Indicated With:

  • Same as white markings

Stripe

Position

  • On Nasal bone, not exceeding flat surface
  • Between eye level and nostril

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Position, if not connected to a star
  • Position on face
  • Origin of stripe: Pointed, blunt or tapering
  • Length: Short or Long
  • Shape:
  • – Conjoined (connected)
    – interrupted, (broken)
    – mixed
    – narrow
    – broad
    – broadening
    – irregular
    – bordered
    – faint
    – inclined
    – curved (to the left/right)

  • Broken Stripe
  • Mixed Stripe
  • Few white hairs
  • Star and Connecting Stripe

Indicated With:

  • Same as white markings

Blaze

Position

  • On Nasal bone, exceeding flat surface
  • Between eye level and nostril

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Same as Stripe descriptions
  • Star (Large/medium) and connecting blaze
  • Dark marks (black, bay or chestnut) within the blaze

Indicated With:

  • Same as white markings

Snip

Position

  • The region of, or between the nostrils
  • May enter one or both nostrils

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Position on Muzzle
  • Relation to the nostrils: Touching, exceeding into or covering the nostril
  • Size: Small or Large
  • Shape
  • – narrow
    – broad
    – round
    – irregular
    – diamond
    – elongated

  • Intensity
  • – Flesh mark
    – Feint

  • Stripe / blaze and connecting snip
  • Flesh marks (pink) or pigmented (dark) spots

Indicated With:

  • Same as white markings

White Muzzle

Position

  • Lips and nostril region

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • White- or a flesh mark
  • Dark Spots noted i.e. Flesh mark with centred dark spot.

Indicated With:

  • Same as white markings

White Face

Position

  • Front of the face not covering the eyes

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Includes large star, combined with a broad blaze and white muzzle
  • Extension: Unilateral or Bilateral
  • Additional markings within in is described

Indicated With:

  • Same as white markings

Bald Face

Position

  • Front of the face including one or both eyes, fills most of the forehead extending downward to the muzzle

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Extension: Unilateral or Bilateral
  • Additional markings within in is described

Indicated With:

  • Same as white markings

Patch (Muzzle)

Position

  • Upper Lip
  • Lower Lip
  • Chin

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Patch (white mark)
  • Flesh mark
  • Position
  • – left
    – right
    – front

  • Partial or whole lip

Indicated With:

  • Same as white markings

Limb Markings

Position

  • Legs

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Height of marking on limb determines the type of marking i.e. Fetlock
  • Leg
  • – left
    – right
    – front
    – back

  • Position
  • – inside
    – outside
    – in front
    – behind

  • Spread over different limits of the leg should be described i.e “Half cannon in front as a narrow point and fetlock behind”

Indicated With:

  • Outlined and hatched

Nil

Position

  • Legs

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Black hoof with no white markings

Heel

Position

  • Back of hoof

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Outside
  • Inside
  • Both heels

Indicated With:

  • Outlined and hatched

Coronet

Position

  • Coronary band

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Location and extent
  • – outside
    – inside
    – whole

Indicated With:

  • Outlined and hatched

Ermine

Position

  • Coronet (bay and black horses)

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Small black marks within a coronet.
  • Position
  • – outside
    – inside
    – both
    – amount i.e 3 ermines

  • “coronary ermine band” is used to describe continuous ermine markings forming a coronary band

Indicated With:

  • Black outline

Chestnut Spots

Position

  • Coronet band (Chestnut horses)

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Small red marks within a coronet.
  • Position
  • – outside
    – inside
    – both
    – amount i.e 3 chestnut spot

Indicated With:

  • Black outline

Few White hairs or Patch of hairs

Position

  • Head
  • Legs
  • Body

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • “white patch” or a “mixed patch”
  • Position
  • – outside
    – inside
    – front

  • “Broken coronary band” where marking does not extend the full coronary band.

Indicated With:

  • Hatched or outline depending on intensity

Pastern

Position

  • Immediately below the fetlock down to the hoof

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Size
  • – Half Pastern
    – Three quarter pastern
    – Pastern

Indicated With:

  • Outlined and hatched

Fetlock

Position

  • Top of the fetlock joint to the hoof

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Size:
    – Half fetlock
    – Partial fetlock
    – Fetlock

Indicated With:

  • Outlined and hatched

Cannon

Position

  • Below Knee extending down to the hoof

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Size
  • – Quarter
    – half
    – three quarter
    – full cannon

  • Presence of markings within the white must be noted

Indicated With:

  • Outlined and hatched

Knee or Hock

Position

  • Top of the Knee or Hock extending to the hoof

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Size:
    – Half
    – Partial
    – Full
  • Presence of markings within the white must be noted

Indicated With:

  • Outlined and hatched

Forearm Gaskin Stifle

Position

  • Top of the forearm, gaskin and stifle extending to the hoof

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Size:
    – Half
    – Partial
    – Full
  • Presence of markings within the white must be noted

Indicated With:

  • Outlined and hatched

Hoof Pigmentation

Position

  • Hoof

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Colour (black/white)
  • Striped / Stripes
  • Associated with spot on the coronet

*Hoof colour is associated with leg marking

Indicated With:

  • Black shading indicates white hooves on the diagram
  • Hatching indicates striped hooves unless the stripes are characterised, in that case white areas are shaded and black areas are left unshaded.

Branding

Position

  • Neck
  • Shoulder
  • Hind Quarters
  • Top Line (back)
  • Upper lip if a tattoo

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Type:
    – Hot brands
    – Freeze brands
    – Tattooing
  • Branding is made up of numbers, symbols and letters
  • Unrecognisable branding indicated as a scar

Indicated With:

  • Draw branding in black

Scars

Position

  • Any part of body

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Position on Body
  • Type: scars acquired with use of equipment, sustained injuries

Indicated With:

  • Arrow pointing towards area

Large White Patches (Paint Horses)

Position

  • Any part of body

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Tabiano, Overo, Tovero, Splashed

Indicated With:

  • Outlined and hatched

Patch (body)

Position

  • Any part of body

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Position on body
  • Shape: oval, round, diamond shape, vertical, horizontal, narrow, triangular, elongated, linear, diagonal, comma, V, shield, pear, pointed crescent shaped (right or left open) and other. If non of these can be used, the term irregular should be used.
  • Extent/size:
    – Small
    – Medium
    – Large
  • Patch: large, well defined grouping of hair which differ from coat colour
  • Blood mark: Red patches found on grey horses
  • Liver mark: Dark patch on a bay or chestnut
  • White mark: White patch

Indicated With:

  • White spots are outlined and hatched in black
  • Dark spots or patches are outlined in black left unhatched

List Eel stripe Eland Stripe

Position

  • Back, from wither to tail

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Black dorsal line joining the wither to the tail

Indicated With:

  • Mention in Narrative

Zebra Marks (Tiger Stripes)

Position

  • Back of the forearm, front of the gaskins, across the neck, withers, shoulders, or quarters

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Black (dark) stripes at a vertical angle to long axis of the body

Indicated With:

  • Mention in Narrative

Flecking

Position

  • Any part of body

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Irregular distribution of white hairs on body
  • Intensity
  • – Lightly
    – Heavily

  • Position on body

Indicated With:

  • Indicated as small black lines

Ticking or Roaning

Position

  • Any part of body

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Isolated distribution of scattered white hairs in specific area of body
  • White hair found in tail is recognised as ticking
  • Degree varies from light to heavy
  • Position on body

Indicated With:

  • Indicated as small black lines

Spots

Position

  • Any part of body

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Circular Hair collection in a differing from the coat
  • Spot Type:
    – Ink spots (dark)
    – Bend (dark sport chestnut)
    – Birdcatcher (small white spots varying in degree)
  • Described as dark/white spot/s
  • Position on body

Indicated With:

  • Indicated with outline

Dental irregularities

Position

  • Mouth

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Parrot mouth (upper jaw extending past lower jaw)
  • Bulldog mouth (lower jaw extending past upper jaw)
  • Other:
    – Broken
    – Protruding
    – Worn
    – Missing teeth

Indicated With:

  • Described in narrative

Nicked or Loped Ears

Position

  • Ears

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Described as such

Indicated With:

  • Described in narrative

Eye abnormalities

Position

  • Eyes

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Loss of an eye
  • Wall eye is a lack of pigmentation in the iris, resulting in pinkish/bluish white appearance
  • White sclera
  • The white of the eye shows between the eyelids

Indicated With:

  • Described in narrative

Prophet’s Thumb Print or Dimple

Position

  • Prophet’s thumb: on the neck, breast or point of shoulder
  • Dimple: occurs on varies places of the body, but mainly on the point of the shoulder

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Muscle indentation

Indicated With:

  • Indicated as a triangle
  • Mentioned in the narrative

Coat Affects

Position

  • On body

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Dapples: Circular patterns on the coat
  • Mealy: Lighter areas on the eyes, muzzle, lower belly, elbow, and flanks in bay horses

Indicated With:

  • Mention in Narrative

Conformation characteristics

Terms Used For Descriptions:

  • Conformational Characteristics
    – Abnormal neck
    – Swayed/roach back
    – Limb deviations
    – Hoof deformations
    – Dropped hips
  • Facial profiles
    – Roman nose
    – Dished face

Indicated With:

  • Mention in Narrative

References

1 APHA. American Paint Horse Association’s guide to Coat Color Genetics. Online PDF. Available: http://press.apha.com/pdfs/guidebooks/ColorGenGuide.pdf (Date Accessed 19 July 2016)

2 AERA. October 2012. Australian Endurance Riders Association Inc. – Notes for Owners completing the Horse Identification for a Novice Logbook. Online PDF. Available: http://www.vicera.com.au/application/files/
9114/5324/0767/AERA_Notes_on_identifying_horses_for_horse_owners.pdf (Date Accessed: 22 January 2016)

3 Australian Stud Book. March 2015. Approved Veterinarian Identification of the Thoroughbred in Australia. Online PDF. Available: https://www.studbook.org.au/DisplayPDF.aspx?ty=VET (Date Accessed 22 January 2016)

4 FEI. 2007. Identification of Horses with the narrative and the diagram. 5th edition. Online PDF. Available: http://www.fei.org/system/files/ID_of_horses_2014.pdf (Date Accessed: 22 January 2016)

5 Schafer Stephen R., EdD. Smith Erin, Teaching Assistant. 2006. Horse Colors & Markings. University of Wyoming. Online PDF. Available: https://www.google.com/url?
sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwieiYuo-4POAhVCAsAKHWWRAkYQFggeMAA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.unce.unr.edu%2F4H%2Fprograms%2Fstem%2Ffiles%2Fppt
%2FHorseColorsMarkings.ppt&usg=AFQjCNGWjr8tHQC8R3Zi9kcbXdYdDiC_mw&sig2=ItIu507ASWAGh49XdWo7dQ (Date Accessed: 22 January 2016)

6 C. Hamper. 2006. Horse Identification in South Africa. Equine Research Centre, Veterinary Science University of Pretoria. Online PDF. Available: http://www.nhra.co.za/pubs/docs/other/
Horse_identification_in_South_Africa.pdf (Date Accessed: 23 January 2014)